Global Urban Vision – October 2012
(Compiled and Published by J.N. Manokaran (firstname.lastname@example.org) and Hudson Silas on behalf of Glocal Leaders Network)
- I. INDIA:
- 22cr school children to be screened for 3 Ds in 15 states: Union health minister has recently sanctioned Rs 383 crore for 2012-13, and also set up 2,414 dedicated teams at block levels to conduct the school health programme (SHP) under the aegis of the flagship National Rural Health Mission (NRHM). The Union Helath Ministry would start a massive exercise to detect the three Ds — deficiency, disease and disability — among school children, that will cover 22 crore children (6-18 years) in 11 lakh government-run institutions across 15 states. SHP will undertake biannual health service provision through screening, healthcare and referral to look for anemia and assess the nutritional status of children, besides testing their visual acuity and hearing skills. Dental check-up, common skin diseases, heart defects, physical disabilities, learning disorders and behaviorial problems will also be the programme’s priority. Basic medicine kit to take care of common ailments prevalent among young school-going children and referral for service connectivity from primary till super-specialist health facilities will be undertaken. Supplementation like fixed day immunization, micronutrient (Vitamin A and IFA) management, weekly supervised indigestion of iron folate tablets, administration of vitamin A and-de worming will also be conducted. Once the dedicated teams are optimally operational, the ministry plans to include pre-school children through anganwadi centres under “SHP Plus”. The ministry expects the programme to take off from January across all the 15 states. The programme implementation plan says Chattisgarh has set up 294 teams, Himachal Pradesh (140), Jharkhand (194), Uttarakhand (38), Assam (149), Meghalaya (39), Goa (11) and Arunachal Pradesh (32). In Arunachal Pradesh, 14,523 children will be screened, Chhattisgarh (30 lakh), Himachal Pradesh (10.9 lakh), J&K (2.12 lakh), Odisha (64 lakh), UP (6 crore), Assam (42 lakh), Meghalaya (1.79 lakh) and Manipur (2.63 lakh). (Kounteya Sinha,http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/india/22cr-school-children-to-be-screened-for-3-Ds-in-15-states/articleshow/16537037.cmsaccessed on 25 September 2012.)
- Pray that children of our country have good food, shelter, and proper health
- Pray that government of India come up with programs and laws that would remove poverty
- Devotional music hits a high note: The songs associated with every religious festival are heard long before the festival is actually celebrated. India is a country with large numbers of religious people who love devotional music. In figures compiled by Indian Music Industry (IMI), the umbrella organisation representing 142 music companies like Saregama, Universal Music and Tips among others, Bollywood music constitutes 40% of the Rs100 crore plus industry, while devotional music constitutes 52%.(Yogesh Pawar, http://www.dnaindia.com/mumbai/report_devotional-music-hits-a-high-note_1744042 accessed on 23 September 2012.)
- May Lord help people to get right kind of spiritual experience.
- Pray that Christian music industry make come up with good music that can attract young and old to Jesus
- Illegal market for guns thrives in Delhi: An illegal arms bazaar is thriving in Delhi city and it is easy to procure a gun if you have the money and right contacts. From simple katas (crude handguns) to sophisticated automatics, everything’s available for prices ranging from Rs 4,000 to Rs 2 lakh. The trade has changed in some ways over the last decade. For one, it does not cater to only gangsters anymore. As the events of the last few weeks show, even lovers with a grudge can find guns easily now. Also, the guns are made in India, not smuggled from China, Malaysia, Italy and Pakistan. While the more sophisticated weapons are made at factories in and around Munger in Bihar, the crude ones are made across UP. Most guns are sold in UP and Haryana. Agents in Meerut and Aligarh dispatch them to areas like Najafgarh in southwest Delhi and Narela in outer Delhi, from where these are distributed, says special cell officers, adding, deals are struck on references. The rise of outer Delhi areas as a hub of the gun trade is owing to their easy connectivity by bus routes, sources say. Police data show how arms sales have slowly picked up. While 573 illegal weapons were seized in 2009, 634 were seized in 2010, and 770 in 2011. Till July this year, 463 guns had been seized. Ammunition seizures have also risen, from 1,165 in 2010. More than 1,035 cases were registered under the Arms Act in 2011 (up from 884 in 2010). The crime branch alone recovered SLRs, carbines and double-barrel guns while busting nine different organized gangs. “The gravity of the problem is evident considering that only 1,129 new arms licences were issued last year while 11,758 others were renewed. The crime branch even seized 10 guns from petty burglars,” said an officer from this specialized unit. Time and again, gun factories have been unearthed in the capital. The growth of hundreds of illegal arms units on the city’s outskirts and in neighbouring towns has made the problem complex. In west UP, gun manufacture and running has become an organized industry. The factories make every part, from butts to side covers, barrels and triggers using grinding machines, hand-powered drills and welding machines. An officer told TOI that illegal weapons outnumber legal ones in the city eight to one, and more than 90% of violent crimes in Delhi are committed using unlicensed guns. “Guns are even available on rent. You just pay for the bullets and even get the deposit back if the weapon is returned intact,” said a senior police officer. According to a special cell officer, the katta remains the weapon of choice as it is the easiest to dispose of after a crime. “It is almost impossible to link a katta with a crime or a criminal unless there is a clear set of fingerprints,” the officer said. (Dwaipayan Ghosh, http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/delhi/Illegal-market-for-guns-thrives-in-Delhi/articleshow/16509277.cms accessed on 23 September 2012.)
- Pray that Law and Order prevails in our country and mostly in the capital of our country
- Pray that Government brings in laws to eradicate illegal arms trade in our country
- Artificial heart now in India, price Rs 1 crore: A tiny mechanized device weighing 400 grams may soon give a new lease of life to more than 4 million people in the country who die of heart failure every year. Bandra’s Asian Heart Institute recently completed training its team of doctors to implant the device in patients of heart failure. End-stage heart disease, wherein the heart loses its ability to pump oxygenated blood into the body, is currently almost means a death sentence for the patient. The lifesaver that runs on rechargeable batteries, however, will come at varying costs. At the AHI, it will cost a whopping Rs 1 crore (10 million). Experts say with incidence of heart failure increasing by 2 million annually and heart transplants being a distant dream in the country, this technology could be the way forward. Less than 1% of heart failure patients have any chance of getting an organ for transplant. This device, much smaller than the original heart, could be our solution to heart failure. The artificial heart not only gives the patient a shot at life, it also allows the natural heart to recover. In 10-15% of patients, the original heart recovers and the device is then removed. Globally over 10,000 people are believed to be living with the device that is considered the most sophisticated to assist a failing heart. Chances of infection, even if less than 10%, are there. There will be cables sticking out of the body which many may not prefer. Affordability will remain the biggest hurdle. (Sumitra Deb Roy, http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/india/Artificial-heart-now-in-India-price-Rs-1-crore/articleshow/16508632.cms accessed on 23 September 2012.)
- Pray that good medical facilities are provided to one and all in our country
- Pray that lifesaving drugs and operations are made affordable to people of India
- Spurious drugs, shortage ail city general hospital: Doctors at the Government General Hospital, Chennai panicked as patients given antibiotic ceftriaxone showed side-effects , including a dip in blood pressure, swelling and rashes. The stores at the medical college hospital recalled the entire batch of drugs distributed to different wards and returned it to the Tamil Nadu State Medical Service Corporation (TNMSC) for tests. The patients were monitored for 48 hours to ensure there was no further adverse reaction. The corporation, which purchases generic drugs from across the country through a tendering process and distributes them to government hospitals, is also responsible for quality control. The results of the tests are not yet known. The samples were normally sent to the state drug control laboratory for analysis. The corporation has blacklisted 38 drugs and five companies since May 2009. Bandages and antiseptic applications like povidone-iodine supplied to the hospitals were found spurious. And then there is the severe shortage of drugs. Senior doctors told health minister V S Vijay that government hospitals were not getting several lifesaving drugs. (Pushpa Narayan, http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/chennai/Spurious-drugs-shortage-ail-city-general-hospital/articleshow/16485189.cms accessed on 21 September 2012.)
- Pray that government takes action on companies or drug stores that are providing spurious medicines
- Pray that good medical facilities are made available to people coming to government hospitals.
- The shadow of the crab: 55,000 children diagnosed with cancer every year in India; while is it 2 lakh worldwide. In the US it is 12500. Studies show a direct link between increased urbanisation and childhood cancer worldwide. Only 5 per cent of childhood cancer is hereditary; 95 per cent of the causes are external factors: viruses, pollution, radiation etc. In 2009, India had only 55 paediatric oncologists, 15 of them in Mumbai; even the rest are available only in cities. Paediatric oncology not recognised as a speciality in over 250 medical colleges across the country. The commonest childhood cancer is leukaemia; lymphomas, brain tumours, tumours of bone and soft tissue rank next. Childhood cancer constitutes just four per cent of total cancer in India—the rising figures are a cause of concern, not excess alarm. Cancer is the number one cause of death in children in the US and Canada. Twenty-three per cent of the afflicted children are less than a year old, 20 per cent 1-4 years. In the UK, doctors tell 10 children every day that they have cancer; 7 per cent of children’s deaths there are caused by cancer. In Japan, it’s 6.6 per cent. Even so, the US has only 12,500 new cases of childhood cancer every year, much lower than India’s 55,000 yearly, with several more going undetected. DSince only five per cent of childhood cancer is known to have hereditary causes, external factors—food, water, pollution, radiation—are being suspected. The trouble is, we are hardly equipped to deal with this heart-rending problem. In 2009, India only had 55 paediatric oncologists, and 15 of them were in Mumbai. The India Paediatric Oncology Initiative of the Jiv Daya Foundation, Dallas, US, found India had just 26 regional cancer centres and 172 oncology departments. In 265 Indian medical colleges, paediatric oncology isn’t recognised as a specialty. One factor being blamed for cancers now is radiation from mobile towers, though research on this is still inadequate.Perhaps the only good news about childhood cancer is that, unlike adult cancers, the cure rate is high: 75 per cent of childhood cancers are completely curable. But the severe pain will have to be borne—by those who should have to deal with no more than knees and elbows scraped at play. (Amba Batra Bakshi Outlook 24 September 2012, p. 18-24.)
- Pray that Indian government takes necessary steps to provide universal health care.
- Pray that India produces more oncologists to face diseases like Cancer
- 70% migrants to Mumbai are from Maharashtra: Nearly 70% of migrants come from rural or urban areas within Maharashtra itself, reveals an analysis of data from the National Sample Survey Organization’s (NSSO) 64th round. For every migrant coming to a city in Maharashtra from the urban areas of other states such as Bihar, Uttar Pradesh or Orissa, there are over three migrants who have come from within the state. The reality of Maharashtraian migrants holds true for those moving from rural areas, as well. Out of every 1,000 migrants in urban Maharashtra, 370 come from villages within the state, while 198 migrants come from villages outside the state’s borders, reveals the NSSO. Data also highlights that people migrate for various reasons, not only in pursuit of jobs as is being portrayed. For instance, over 538 per 1,000 migrants in urban Maharashtra, particularly women, have moved residence due to marriage. The Bihar migrants go more to Delhi. “The National Capital Region of Delhi is the most popular destination with 25.4% of the total migrants going there, followed by Punjab with 21.2%.” Maharashtra comes third with about 8.5% migrants. Urban projects create informal work opportunities for people in towns and cities near their homes which could explain why migrants from within the state outnumber those from other states. (Madhavi Rajadhyaksha,http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/mumbai/70-migrants-to-Mumbai-are-from-Maharashtra/articleshow/16428301.cms accessed on 17 September 2012.
- Pray for the migrants situation in Maharastra
- Pray that peace and harmony is prevailing for people migrating from and to various parts of India
- 8. Delhi, Mumbai world’s cheapest cities: Survey: Oslo is the most expensive city in the world, ahead of Zurich and Tokyo, but the well-paid residents of the Swiss financial hub enjoy the greatest purchasing power, according to a study released on Friday. The cheapest places to live were Delhi and Mumbai. The annual survey of 72 cities by Swiss bank UBS found its own hometown had the world’s highest average wages and the biggest purchasing power. The study examined the price of a basket of 122 goods and services, adjusted for currency fluctuations. The cost of living index was calculated by dividing the price of goods by the weighted net hourly wage in 15 sectors. “In Tokyo it takes nine minutes of work to earn enough to buy a Big Mac, while in Nairobi it takes 84 minutes,” it said. Zurich residents must work 13 minutes for the hamburger, but other goods were relatively cheaper than in Tokyo, putting the Swiss city top of the purchasing power index. “Workers in Zurich can buy an iPhone after 22 hours work; in Manila, by contrast, it takes around 20 times longer,” UBS said. Workers had to toil 42 minutes in Istanbul and 29 minutes in Shanghai for a Big Mac, while in New York and Hong Kong just 10 minutes were required. The cheapest places to live were Delhi and Mumbai. New York was the sixth most expensive, Moscow came in at number 40 and Shanghai at 49. The survey also looked at working hours and found the shortest were in Paris, Lyon and Copenhagen. Workers in Asia, Africa, the Middle East and South America toil the longest, at over 2,000 hours per year, it found. (http://www.ndtv.com/article/india/delhi-mumbai-world-s-cheapest-cities-survey-267651 accessed on 15 September 2012.)
- Pray for Mumbai and its ever increasing population and also the issues people are facing
- Pray that all people of Mumbai have food, shelter, dress, and decent job.
9. 1.75crore vehicles crowd Tamil Nadu roads: In a little less than two decades, Tamil Nadu’s vehicle population has increased by 730%. With several thousand vehicles being added per day, the number of vehicles in the state is inching towards 1.75 crore. Chennai city is groaning under the burden of about 37 lakh vehicles, accounting for nearly 25 percent of the total vehicles in the state. The number of vehicles has been particularly growing over the past couple of years and crossed a whopping 1.58 crore in August 2012. At the same time, the number of vehicles in Chennai has crossed 36.75 lakhs, adding stress to the already congested roads. These startling facts also highlight the minimal increase in public transport network over the years, which are forcing the general public to go in for private vehicles. Of the 1.58 crore vehicles in the state as on Aug.1, 2012, as many as 1.30 crore are two wheelers, accounting for a whopping 85 percent. The number was just 1.26 crore last April. In Chennai, two-wheeler population (1,30,38,498) accounts for 78 percent, while cars are just 14 percent).However, simultaneously, the registration of new cars has also kept pace with two wheelers. The number of cars in the state, which was 2.46 lakhs in 1993 has escalated to 4.83 lakh in 2002 and has shot up to 13.83 lakh (13.41 lakh in April) registering over 460-percentage growth in two decades. Till some time ago, overspeeding was the main reason for road accidents in the city. Now the deteriorating road conditions, especially with roads being constantly dug up for various reasons, especially metro rail work, have become a prime factor for the mishaps. Motorists, especially two-wheeler riders, face an added burden with the bumpy and snail-paced movement of traffic resulting in an alarming increase in chronic backache among commuters. Roads have not been widened in the past 10 years, but vehicle density has increased several fold, adding to the traffic burden, point out sources in the traffic department, who say that road safety has become a matter of prime concern. The Institute of Financial Management Research says that on an average 1,780 vehicles are being added to Chennai roads every day without a corresponding increase in motorable road space. The increase in number of vehicles adds further pressure on the traffic and is seen as an increasing cause of accidents and mental trauma. The doctor also advises two-wheeler riders to exercise regularly n riding and using public transport system to avoid chronic back problems. Road mishaps in the city have come down over the last eight months, despite the rapid increase in vehicular population and the shrinking road space. There is no end in sight to the ordeal faced by motorists on the Madras Tiruvallur High (MTH) Road with the state highways department and the National Highways Authority of India (NHAI) passing the buck to each other over funding repair work. This has affected lakhs of people living in the western part of city, particularly Ambattur, Avadi, Pattabiram and Annanur. The people want the state government to carry out road repairing work before the onset of the northeast monsoon. NHAI dropped the proposal to widen the road after facing stiff resistance from traders over land acquisition. The proposal was to widen the MTH road into a four-lane highway with a service road on either side. (http://www.deccanchronicle.com/channels/cities/chennai/175-crore-vehicles-crowd-tamil-nadu-roads-828 accessed on 15 September 2012.)
· Pray for air pollution and noise pollution control due to vehicles in Chennai
· Pray for better roads, more public transport and better town planning.
- The Great Indian Blood Crisis: According to the World Health Organisation, a country needs a minimum stock of blood equal to 1 per cent of its population. This means India needs 12 million units of blood, but only nine million units are collected annually. But these are official estimates; doctors believe that the actual demand is at least five times more. With the increasing number of diseases and road accidents, the need for blood has gone up drastically in the last few years. The supply of blood depends on three types of donations—voluntary (unpaid), professional (paid), and as replacement for used blood. Professional blood donation or donating for money was banned by the Supreme Court in 1999, to improve the quality of blood samples. So, almost 60 per cent of the total blood collected in the country is through voluntary blood donation. In developed countries, 50 per 1,000 people donate blood in a year, but in India eight per 1,000 do so. Even Mumbai, which has the highest number of voluntary donors, faces a blood crunch during monsoon. Bihar requires 10 lakh units of blood annually, its voluntary collection amounts to just one lakh. In fact, at most blood banks in Patna, blood is sold as a commodity, and one can bargain on its price. Adding to the problem of shortage is that of wastage. Blood has a limited shelf life, and if not used judiciously, it expires. In January this year, 140 units of packed RBCs were disposed of at the CNC centre at All India Institute of Medical Sciences in Delhi as they had passed the expiry date. Ludhiana’s Lord Mahavir Civil Hospital reportedly wasted 458 units of blood during 2008 and 2009. Wrong blood transfusion or wastage of blood leading to death is not uncommon. In December last year, a cancer patient died at Jaslok Hospital in Mumbai, reportedly due to wrong blood transfusion, and the blood bank’s licence was suspended for 15 days. Some experts say that the shortage is partly due to injudicious use of blood. Doctors ask patients to arrange for large amounts of blood even for low-risk surgeries. Besides, in 70 per cent of the cases that require blood transfusion, whole blood is being used, instead of its components. One unit of blood can save three lives, if it is processed into its components—RBCs, platelets and plasma. They have distinct uses. For example, in cases of dengue and malaria, patients need only platelets; burn cases need plasma, and cancer patients and pregnant women mainly need RBCs. But unfortunately, in India, only around 30 per cent of the blood can be processed into these components because of the lack of equipment, which compounds the shortage. Even the capital city faces a lot of issues as far as blood safety, storage and delivery are concerned. There is no monitoring of blood bank as the Central Drug Standard Control Organisation, the regulatory body which is responsible for licensing and monitoring blood banks in the country, does not have adequate staff to carry out its duties. As a result, many small-scale blood banks that do not follow any guidelines have mushroomed in the country. There is also a severe shortage of trained staff at blood banks. Nurses, technical staff and processing staff at a blood bank need to be sensitised and imparted special training to handle blood and its components, which are perishable. Though most of the blood banks claim to give such training, the attrition rate is high, as it is not a preferred employment among most technical staff and doctors. There is also a lack of dedicated blood transportation vehicles in the country. Most blood banks issue blood to the patients’ relatives, who carry blood from the blood bank to the hospital in an ice-box with ice packs that last for just two hours. Relatives, in most cases, are not aware of these facts, and the blood gets wasted in the process of transportation itself, posing a threat to the patient’s life. In western countries, however, as a rule, blood is transported from one centre to another in blood ambulances, which are equipped with proper refrigeration system. They also have a centralised system consisting of small storage and collection centres, and all the collected blood is processed at one major processing unit before being distributed to these storage centres. There is also a computerised system to track the need and supply of blood. This system ensures that blood reaches its destination in time. “In fact, there are helicopters dedicated to transport even a single unit of blood from one centre to another,” says Dr Vanshree Singh, director of the blood bank at Indian Red Cross Society in Delhi. “It has nothing to do with the country’s economy; it is only a matter of policy. Life is precious for them, and they know how to use their resources judiciously.” (Gunjan Sharma, The Week 9 September 2012, p. 20-26.)
- Pray that Indian government makes sure that proper medical facilities are provided to all
- Pray that Nurses, technical staff and processing staff at a blood banks need to be sensitized and imparted special training to meet the demands of the situation
- Former Miss World lodges police complaint against her husband:Former Miss World and actress Yukta Mookhey has lodged a complaint against her husband Prince Tuli for alleged domestic violence, police said on 13 September 2012. “In her complaint, Ms Mookhey alleged that she had often been beaten and troubled by her husband Prince Tuli. A non-cognizable offence has been registered after her complaint,” said Amboli police station’s senior inspector Harishchandra Vhatkar. A non-cognizable offence is one in which the police can neither register an FIR, investigate, nor effect arrest without the express permission or direction from the court. Ms Mookhey was crowned Miss World in December 1999 at the Olympia theatre in London at the age of 20. She later acted in several Bollywood movies. Mr Tuli is a New York-based businessman and financial consultant, whose family owns a business empire in central India with interests in logistics, hotels, malls, education, and construction equipment. (http://www.ndtv.com/article/cities/former-miss-world-lodges-police-complaint-against-her-husband-267055accessed on 14 September 2012.)
- Pray that Indian society may learn to respect women and not violate their identity and dignity.
- Pray that violence against women is eradicated from our country
- India has highest child mortality rate, says UN report: With almost 19,000 children under five years of age dying every day across the world, India tops the list of countries with the highest number of 16.55 lakh such deaths in 2011, according to a UN agency. The ‘Child Mortality Estimates Report 2012’ released by Unicef in New York has said that in 2011, around 50 per cent of global under-five deaths occurred in just five countries of India, Nigeria, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Pakistan and China. Incidentally, India’s toll is higher than the deaths in Nigeria, Democratic Republic of Congo and Pakistan put together. While there have been 7.56 lakh deaths in Nigeria during the last year, Democratic Republic of the Congo accounts for 4.65 lakh deaths and Pakistan 3.52 lakh deaths of under-five children during 2011. China reported 2.49 lakh deaths of under-5 kids last year, followed by 1.94 lakh by Ethiopia and 1.34 lakh each by Indonesia and Bangladesh. Uganda with 1.31 lakh such deaths and Afghanistan with 1.28 lakh deaths held the ninth and 10th position in the list of 10 top countries reporting under-five children deaths. Singapore with a mortality rate of 2.6 has the lowest under-five deaths, while Slovenia and Sweden followed it with a mortality of 2.8. The Unicef report also states that globally Pneumonia is the leading killer of children under five, causing 18 per cent of all under-five deaths worldwide – a loss of roughly 1.3 million lives in 2011, the bulk of which occur in just two regions, sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia. Globally, the five leading causes of deaths among children under five include pneumonia (18 per cent); pre-term birth complications (14 per cent); diarrhoea (11 per cent); intrapartum-related complications (9 per cent) and malaria (7 per cent). Besides, more than a third of child deaths are attributable to undernutrition globally, the report states. (http://www.ndtv.com/article/india/india-has-highest-child-mortality-rate-says-un-report-266616 accessed on 13 September 2012.)
- Pray that child mortality rate goes down in India
- Pray that proper food and medical facilities are provided every child born India
- Man’s hand cut off for asking for wages: In an instance of extraordinary brutality, a labourer’s hand was chopped off by his employers infuriated over his seeking pending wages. Lalman Yadav and his brother Uday Yadav, who run an illicit liquor business in Sikhnadi village in Jharkhand’s Garhwa district, had hired Aliyar Rajwar (40) for supplying water to their production unit. Rajwar was hired by the Yadav brothers at Rs 100 per day. His monthly entitlement was Rs 3000. When he did not get his dues for three straight months, he approached the brothers for payment. But instead of giving Rajwar the Rs 9,000 they owed him, they first beat him up and then cut-off his hand with an axe. The attack on Rajwar took place late on 9 September 2012 and the Yadav brothers are absconding since then, while their accomplice, a man called Ramchandra, has been arrested. The police were conducting raids to arrest the accused. Rajwar fell unconscious after the assault and when he regained his senses, he found himself in Garhwa Sadar Hospital from where he was shifted to Rajendra Institute of Medical Sciences (RIMS), Ranchi for specialised treatment. (Q.A. Hadi, http://articles.timesofindia.indiatimes.com/2012-09-12/india/33788243_1_police-station-brothers-arrest accessed on 12 September 2012.)
- Pray for the upliftment of poor and marginalized in society so that they do not work in illegal trades.
- crime against weaker sections of the society in India may be eradicated
- ‘1 in 4 ICU patients gets sepsis, 1 in 2 dies’: A nationwide study found a prevalence of sepsis within intensive care units of hospitals: one out of four patients admitted in ICUs contracted the ailment in hospitals’ emergency departments. Almost one out of two patients with sepsis died. The reasons for the rising incidence could be poor hospital hygiene, abuse of antibiotics or rampant self-medication among people. Sepsis can lead to multi-organ failure and is globally a prime cause of death by infection. The study — Indian Intensive Care Case Mix and Practice Patterns (INDICAPS) — is based on a sample size of 4,209 patients, including 171 children, admitted to 124 ICUs across 17 states. Preliminary findings showed how 26% of the patients in ICUs contracted sepsis. Mortality in patients with sepsis was 42.2% as opposed to 17.8% in those who did not get it. The study also busted the myth that patients undergoing surgeries are more prone than others to sepsis. For, 859 or 27.6% of the patients who died of sepsis were not operated upon and were in hospital for non-surgical treatment. The percentage of deaths in surgical cases was around 14.4%. Common sites of infection in patients that resulted in sepsis included bedsores, intravenous lines, surgical wounds and surgical drains. Around 25.5% of sepsis patients were admitted to ICUs from the emergency department, 18.5% from home and 36% from ward of the same hospital. (Sumitra Deo Roy, http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/india/1-in-4-ICU-patients-gets-sepsis-1-in-2-dies/articleshow/16360235.cms accessed on 12 September 2012.)
- Pray for Indian Church to start many medical colleges to produce good doctors for India.
- Pray that emergency facilities are made available to all people irrespective of their social stigma
- Delhi hospital takes safety shot, hires bouncers: Bouncers keep the emergency and labor rooms from filling up with patients’ often agitated relatives in Deen Dayal Upadhyay Hospital in New Delhi. The bouncers are polite, yet so tough-looking that people think twice about ignoring their orders. “These guys look like they walked right out of an action movie,” said one patient. Working in a hospital can be dangerous. In April, a week before DDU hired the bouncers, friends of an emergency-room patient punched a doctor in the face and broke his nose before going on a rampage with hockey sticks, swinging at windows, lights, furniture and medical staff. The medical staff at DDU, a government hospital, had faced nearly one attack a month and had gone on strike 20 times over six years demanding better security. Since the hospital replaced its middle-aged, pot-bellied guards with bar bouncers, bodyguards, and wrestlers sporting muscles and tattoos, “there hasn’t been a single incident,” said Dr. Nitin Seth, the doctor who was injured in April. Thousands of attacks occur in hospitals every year, said Dr. Narendra Saini, spokesman for the Indian Medical Association. In January, a man in Chennai was charged with using a sword to hack to death a surgeon he held responsible for his pregnant wife’s death during surgery. Three months later, a mob at a Delhi hospital beat up six doctors in retaliation for supposed sexual misconduct after the medical staff unsuccessfully tried to resuscitate a female patient using CPR. When someone dies in the hospital, relatives often start blaming — even attacking — doctors. The DDU Hospital guards, a team of 21 split across three shifts, cover the busiest areas of the campus, especially the emergency and labor rooms.Few hospitals can afford this kind of security. As a society, we are just not trained to be patient. We don’t wait for our turn, or let things go through their due process. Patients or their attendants turn violent because they think they can get away with it. Attacking a doctor might be a serious crime; there is no record that anyone get booked for it. (Nasr Ul Hadi, http://www.hindustantimes.com/India-news/NewDelhi/Delhi-hospital-takes-safety-shot-hires-bouncers/Article1-927400.aspx accessed on 10 September 2012.)
- Pray for security of doctors in India and violence against them in various parts of India
- Pray that violence mind set may be changed.
- Multi-drug resistant TB stalking Chennai: The most feared form of drug-resistant tuberculosis has arrived in Chennai. Doctors at the National Institute for Research in Tuberculosis (NIRT) in Chennai report that they have since July treated a few TB patients who did not respond to any of the existing antibiotics for the disease. Some of the patients have died. Researchers say they cannot as yet provide specific number of cases or the percentage of TB patients with the deadly strain of the disease, advanced extensively drug resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB ). They say that they are still screening patients and abeledg the results, but the institute confirmed instances of the strain. Tuberculosis, caused by the organism Mycobacterium tuberculosis, can be fatal but is curable with a cocktail of antibiotics. But new strains of the organism with multi-drug resistance, which have surfaced in many places across the globe, have left physicians dreading the possibility that a TB ‘superbug’ could prove completely resistant to all drugs currently available.
When patients are resistant to the first line of treatment, they are abeled multidrug resistant (MDR-TB ). Such people are given the second line drugs that are more expensive and have greater side-effects . Patients who become resistant to second line of drugs fall into the extensively drug resistant (XDR-TB ) category. When the first instances of the strain, which is resistant to all known antibiotics, being detected in India were reported in Mumbai in January, the government went into denial mode. After doctors across the country said they had treated TB patients who did not respond to drugs, the government confirmed that the drug-resistant strain had arrived in India. When the bacterium is exposed to the drug but is not killed, it develops resistance to the medicine. Drug resistance slows cure and increases rate of transmission.
Multi-drug-resistant tuberculosis or MDR-TB is a form of the disease, which is resistant to isoniazid (INH) and rifampicin (RMP), the two most powerful first-line anti-TB drugs. Extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis or XDR-TB is a form caused by bacteria that are resistant to anti-TB drugs. Total drug-resistant tuberculosis or TDRTB is a relatively new strain of TB reported, which is resistant to the 12 anti-TB drugs. Every year, India adds the largest number of people to the global TB population. The Union health ministry in 2009 estimated that of the 94 lakh cases reported globally 20 lakh were from India WHO records show that of the 11 lakh deaths reported in 2010, more than 3 lakh were from India, the largest number recorded, followed by Bangladesh, Indonesia and Pakistan.(Pushpa Naryan, http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/chennai/Multi-drug-resistant-TB-stalking-Chennai/articleshow/16330104.cmsaccessed on 10 September 2012.)
· Pray for doctors who treat life threatening diseases of various patients and find no answer to the disease
· Pray for research and discovery of medicines for such diseases.
17. 1,300 less MBBS seats in the country this year: Government said there has been a reduction of 1,300 MBBS seats this year after the Medical Council of India did not give renewal permission to 12 medical colleges having as many undergraduate medical seats. (http://www.indianexpress.com/news/1-300-less-mbbs-seats-in-the-country-this-year/999465/ accessed on 8 September 2012)
· Pray that government and Medical Council of India come up with a solution to handle situations that can lead to crisis
· Pray for Indian Church to be proactively involved in health care sector in India.
- Chennai turning into safe haven for drug smugglers: Seizure of 50 lakh worth of ketamine by Chennai airport customs officials on 25 August has once again reaffirmed the fact the city is turning into a safe haven for drug smugglers. In the last two months, airport officials registered six cases of drug smuggling, a record of sorts, and seized contraband worth 2.50 crore. The problem is that investigations into these cases don’t go beyond the arrest of the carriers, and the kingpins continue to evade the law. Customs officials arrest the couriers and hand them over to the narcotic wing of the crime branch or the state police for further action. After that, the drug trail goes cold. Agencies reveal that in 90% of the cases, the trail begins in north Chennai, where cartels from north India sell drugs to be smuggled abroad. Cartels from Madhya Pradesh and Arunachal Pradesh transport drugs into the city in trucks. (Arun Janardhanan, http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/chennai/Chennai-turning-into-safe-haven-for-drug-smugglers/articleshow/15720921.cms accessed on 26 August 2012.)
- Drug addiction may be eradicated.
- Law enforcement agencies may have wisdom to handle such serious cases.
- How Healthy is India Inc? If you are a high-pressure executive, beware of your amygdala. That almond-shaped fear centre deep inside your brain gets jittery every time you log 60-plus hours a week, face 24×7 demands, unpredictable work-flows, endless jet lag, flexible global hours, late nights or sleeplessness. It puts your brain on alert and triggers off 1,400 biochemical changes down your body. Adrenal glands pump out stress hormones, sympathetic nerves go into an overdrive, your heart beats faster, blood pressure rises and your digestive system shuts down. Before you know, your body shifts into a state of perpetual anxiety. Corporate warriors of the new economy already have plenty on their platter to worry about the amygdala. Yet as the global recession fills most people with fear about the future, scientists send out warnings about the amygdala’s ability to “hijack” the brain and the body: Stress can burn you out, make you sick, or even kill you. In 2000, when Apollo Hospitals first compiled the health status of corporate India from 15,000 executive checks in the six metros, the findings were dismal. Over 56 per cent were found to be prone to heart attacks, over 30 per cent had cancer risk and 30 per cent were on daily medication. Their latest study, concluded in 2011, covering 250,000 employees from 32 cities and towns, however, shows improvement in overall health: Degenerative and chronic ailments have come down by 36 per cent over the decade. But stress has zoomed. Overall stress among corporate executives has gone up from 39 per cent in 2000 to 50 per cent now, while daily pressures are up from 9 to 17 per cent among the same group. The immediate impact is behaviour change. No wonder, domestic stress among them is up from 2 to 19 per cent, levels of smoking from 14 to 24 per cent and alcohol consumption from 6 to 16 per cent. It’s also trendy to be stressed. The smug view in power corridors is: Competitiveness is a virtue and hence it’s cool to compete even on stress. The rat race has a new finish line: It’s not who gets there first, but who works the hardest and is hence the most hassled. The average workweek has expanded since the 1970s while leisure time has nose-dived by 37 per cent, and Indians seem to be working extra-hard even on vacations. Twenty-seven per cent Indians work for an average of three hours a day on holidays, 7 per cent above the global average. Chronic or extreme workplace stress can lead to psychological distress in the form of anxiety, depression or other mental illnesses. Workplace challenges like demotivation, absenteeism, a high attrition rate, low productivity, increased healthcare costs have also been associated with stress. Scratch below the surface and it’s an unsettling world of long work-hours, strict deadlines, sleep debt, precipitous drop in physical activity, unholy reliance on fat-laden foods of convenience, vicious stress loop at home and work-spiralling into an abyss of chronic lifestyle disorders. At the root of it is obesity. About 36 per cent of corporate employees were found to be overweight and obese in a survey conducted by Assocham among 2,000 people across India in April 2012. The body releases a molecule, NPY (neuropeptide Y), when stressed, which unlocks the fat cells and causes them to grow in both size and number. Stress also ups cortisol in the body, which is directly linked to fat accumulation. At the higher reaches of business, a typical workday stretches well beyond the 10-hour stint in office, over Internet and BlackBerry. But the punishing work pace is not the only stressor: 78 per cent of corporate employees sleep less than six hours, shows the assocham survey. Loss of sleep can play havoc with hormones, lead to weight gain, diabetes and compromise immune resistance, leaving one vulnerable to anything from common cold to cancer.
The survey shows 54 per cent of executives miss office for simple sicknesses, like common cold and fever. Studies confirm that insomniacs have a hard time holding on to jobs. What’s the road ahead if you want to survive and thrive? Eat right, meditate, quit smoking, find time to work out, schedule vacations with family (and leave the cell phone behind), focus consciously on happy images from the past. They will pacify your amygdala, signal the parasympathetic nervous system to bring down your heart rate, slow down your breathing, and stop stress hormones cortisol and adrenaline from surging up your bloodstream. Over time, regions in your prefrontal cortex, that are responsible for optimism, creativity and well-being, will thicken with grey matter, enough to resist amygdala’s primitive fragile insecurity. Don’t wait until you develop heart disease. (Damayanti Datta, India Today 3 September 2012, p.48-53.)
- Pray that Indian people may develop healthy habits.
- Pray that people may have real purpose in life and lead stress free life.
- Be afraid, Be very afraid: Malaria—a disease India had all but wiped out by the late 1960s thanks to liberal overdoses of DDT and Chloroquine—is back with a bang. Large swathes of rural India (wetlands, jungles, marshes, humid zones, high-risk areas) have always been at risk. Now, it’s afflicting more urban people, is increasingly resistant to drugs, and nobody really knows how much malaria is out there. Fatalities are on the rise, because the disease has been neglected by the government in recent years.India consumes over 200 tonnes of anti-malarial drugs annually. There is an increasing resistance to existing drugs. A vaccine could be decades away. They are expensive and time-consuming to develop. Anti-malaria drugs Artemesinin and Quinine have been developed from natural plant sources. The first artificial, indigenous malaria drug, Synriam, was launched in April 2012. Deficient it may have been, but this year’s monsoon has already triggered nearly 500 cases in Delhi, beating dengue by a wide margin, according to doctors in large city hospitals. Almost anywhere you look in urban India, malaria is making its presence felt like never before. In 2010, the last year for which official data is available, some 80 per cent of malaria deaths in Maharashtra were reported from Mumbai itself. Ditto for Chennai. In Bhopal and Indore, malaria diagnoses are 70 per cent higher this year than last year. Delhi, Faridabad, Baroda, Vijayawada, Chennai, Vellore and Bangalore among the high-risk towns for malaria. Health experts point out that drug resistance, spread of a more virulent form of malaria (named falciparum after the protozoa that causes it) and lack of medical diagnoses of fevers are turning the disease—though still predominantly rural—into a major urban health risk. The issue is critical to India’s public health for several reasons: research has found a direct link between malnutrition, particularly anaemia, and malaria. Besides, malaria has a cure, making every death, be it rural or urban, all the more tragic. Dr Prabhat Jha, who recently led a countrywide research, known as the Million Death Study (MDS), in collaboration with the Registrar General of Births and Deaths in India (RGI)—published in medical journal Lancet in March 2012—revealed that 2,00,000 Indians die every year of malaria, without ever being diagnosed. The government’s estimate, however, is around 1,000 deaths. These are out of the roughly 1.2 to 2 million officially confirmed malaria cases. The catch is, the programme is effective only if it diagnoses you. Around 80 per cent of rural deaths in India are outside hospitals, in homes. A few decades ago, when six million cases of malaria used to be reported annually, 10 to 12 per cent were estimated to be in urban areas. Today, the disease burden is said to be 2 million, but the share of urban malaria is 8-10 per cent. Tackling malaria is complicated. Six varieties of the Anopheles mosquito carry two radically different strains of the disease, and both mosquitoes and humans can develop varying levels of resistance to anti-malarial drugs. Heavy consumption of drugs is said to be a key culprit in resistance among humans. When India used to report six million malaria cases a year, 64 tonnes of Chloroquine was used for treatment. By the time the numbers fell to two million, CQ consumption zoomed to 400 tonnes. “Add 150-200 tonnes of other anti-malarial medicines, and it’s obvious there is misuse, incorrect dosage, hence resistant malaria,” says Dr Vinod Sharma. Worse, malaria’s more virulent form—caused by and known as falciparum—has been annexing new territories outside the northeastern states, its original home. From less than 10 per cent in the 1950s and ’60s, this variety is estimated to account for 30 or 40 per cent of malaria cases today. And around 50 per cent of falciparum cases are fatal, compared with 1 per cent or less for the milder vivax. The problem is exacerbated by rapid, unplanned urbanisation, particularly water scarcity (which forces people to store water, and clean water breeds mosquitoes). At least 30 per cent of India now lives in 5,000 cities or urban conglomerates, many of which are emerging epicentres of water shortage. (Pragya Singh, Outlook 3 September 2012, p. 44-49.)
- Pray for eradication of Malaria and diseases caused by mosquitoes
- Pray that proper hygienic facilities are provided to people of India and people have hygienic sense.
- 21. Leap of death: Delhi third among cities: The figures draw attention to a painful statistic: Mumbai, with 227 cases between 2006 and 2011, stands second among cities in India when it comes to suicide by jumping off a building. Bangalore tops the chart with 428 cases — a shocking spike of 580% from 25 in 2006 to 170 in 2011. Delhi is third with 132, followed by Ahmedabad (102) and Chennai (100), says the National Crime Records Bureau. Among states, Maharashtra comes fourth with 453 cases after West Bengal (556), Tamil Nadu (527) and Andhra Pradesh (493). Mental health experts say though hanging remains the most preferred method of suicide, jumping off highrises is increasing in the metros. Figures from the last six years show that only one metro — Kolkata — is missing from the list of cities with the maximum such deaths. The trend could also be an unfortunate imitation of the West, where it accounts for a significant number of suicides, simply because of easy access to tall buildings. Such deaths reflected a sense of helplessness and hopelessness. Jumping from a height reduces the chance of survival to almost nil. Other modes of suicide require preparation… jumping from highrises requires no preparation. Further, while death may not be certain in other modes, jumping from a tall building is almost certain to cause instant death, something which an emotional suicide-seeker would want. Policemen on the ground who are among the first to be called in case of suicides say in most cases, people do not want to waste time buying weapons or other materials to end life. (V. Narayan, http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/india/Leap-of-death-Delhi-third-among-cities/articleshow/16242702.cms accessed on 4 September 2012.)
- May people understand the sacredness of life and avoid suicides.
- Pray for Christian counselors to multiply to provide positive role in the society.
- 7% schoolkids prone to asthma: Study: More than 7% of the 3,497 children surveyed across 19 schools in areas including Ghatkopar, Kurla, Mulund, Dadar, Byculla, and Vasai are unaware of their underlying asthmatic symptoms, reveals a study by civic-run King Edward Memorial (KEM) Hospital (Department of Chest Medicine) at Parel, Mumbai. Even as close to 3% of the children surveyed were aware that they are asthmatic and were on medication, more than 7% of the surveyed children were unaware of their condition and have been put in the “grey” zone after they showed asthmatic symptoms. The study also revealed that the vulnerability of children developing asthma varies from place to place. Close to 15% children in Kurla were put in the “grey” zone, which is more than double the number of children vulnerable to asthma in Ghatkopar and Mulund. In Byculla and Dadar, the number of vulnerable children dipped to as low as 3%. During the study, children were asked to vigorously blow air through a portable lung function device which measures “peak flow rate,” a measurement of air blowing capacity of an individual based on his/her height and weight. Close to 54% of the affected children reported asthma due to exposure to multiple factors such as dust and smoke. Areas with heavy congestion, industries and traffic are more prone to affect children and lead to an eventual asthmatic condition. (Maitri Porecha, http://www.dnaindia.com/mumbai/report_7pct-schoolkids-prone-to-asthma-study_1737744 accessed on 7 September 2012.)
- Pray that India medicos are ready to cope up issues and eradicate diseases like asthma
- Pray that proper health and medical facilities are provided to children
- Suburbs see a spurt in crime, cops worried: An increase in the number of burglaries in the Chennai city’s southern suburbs is worrying police officers. A total of 36 cases have been registered until August 31 this year against the 43 cases registered during last year, according to police statistics. A string of measures, including conducting regular vehicle checks and roping in residents for neighbourhood policing, have been put in place. Crack teams patrolled vulnerable areas from 2am to 5am when criminals are said to be most active, he said. There were 25 incidents of robbery in the southern suburbs till August this year against the 69 registered in entire 2011, while 166 cases of chain snatching were reported this year against 269 last year and 53 two-wheeler thefts were registered compared to 83 last year. There have been 41 murders so far this year against 53 last year, he said. Increased policing and regular vehicle checks have proved effective and a number of habitual offenders who had evaded police for long were nabbed, the number of burglaries in a few areas, including Selaiyur, Mudichur, Tambram and Pallavaram, had seen a marginal decline. A few residents seem to agree. In a few areas like Nanganallur and surrounding localities, community patrolling has helped a lot in curbing the crime rate, police said. (Daniel P. George, http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/chennai/Suburbs-see-a-spurt-in-crime-cops-worried/articleshow/16306033.cms accessed on 8 September 2012.)
- Pray for Police to adopt proactive strategies to control crime.
- May people learn dignity of work and honesty.
- 11. Diaspora:
- 1. Remittances to India rose to $ 66.13 bn in 2011-12: Remittances to India surged to $66.13 billion in 2011-12 as compared to $55.62 billion in the previous year, Minister of Overseas Indian Affairs Vayalar Ravi (in Parliament) said on 7 September 2012. Remittance flow has risen consistently in the last three years. In 2009-10, total remittance flow to India through private transfers was $53.63 billion, The Reserve Bank of India (RBI) study states that countries accounted for 27 per cent of total remittance inflows to India during the first half of 2009-10. Ravi said the government has launched an initiative called “Mahatma Gandhi Pravasi Suraksha Yojana” to help in resettlement of the overseas Indians. “By providing a co-contribution from the government, this scheme encourages and enables overseas Indian workers to save for their return and resettlement and to save for their old age. This also provides a free life insurance cover against natural death during the period of coverage, under the scheme,” he said. (http://ibnlive.in.com/news/remittances-to-india-rose-to–6613-bn-in-201112/289460-3.html accessed on 8 September 2012.)
- Pray for Non Resident Indians around the world may wisely invest in India.
- Pray that Christians among Indian Diaspora to be actively involved in missions in the host nations.
2. 4 Indian origin doctors among UK’s top 50: Four Indian-origin doctors figure in the list of 50 most influential family physicians in Britain, according to an authoritative publication focussed on the medical profession. The fourth annual list of top 50 general practitioners published by the ‘Pulse’ magazine includes Kamlesh Khunti, Chaand Nagpaul, Kailash Chand and Krishna Kasaraneni. The ‘Pulse’ list was compiled by a panel of 50 leading general practitioners and includes doctors who are considered by peers as the most influential on the profession, the National Health Service (NHS) and government policy.(http://www.indianexpress.com/news/4-indian-origin-doctors-among-uks-top-50/999395/ accessed on 8 September 2012)
· Pray that India produces more doctors who are efficient and who take top cadre in various parts of the world
- 3. Australia: September 2012 (Press Release): Starting from the Sri Murugan Temple in Westmead on Saturday September 29, a group of 108 will walk in the age-old tradition of Hindu Yatra (pilgrimage) visiting 5 temples along the way to finish at SVT Helensburgh on Sunday September 30, covering 43.5 miles over 2 days.
Pilgrimage on foot, Pada Yatra, to holy places is a special Hindu tradition that brings about physical stamina and spiritual upliftment. Our forefathers and sages have walked the length and breadth of India. Pada Yatra 2012 is organized by a group of young men who have done this walk to Helensburgh for several years. The event is well organized with approvals from NSW Premier’s Department, Police, RTA/RMS and various councils and temples along the way. This is strictly a devotional, non-profit, endeavor by Hindu youth of Sydney. The Yatra starts at 6am at the Sri Murugan Temple and proceeds to BAPS Swaminarayan Temple (RoseHill), Sri Mandir (Auburn), Karpaga Vinayakar Temple (Flemington), Shirdi Sai Mandir (South Strathfield), then to Helensburgh with an overnight stay at Sutherland.
Supported by all the Hindu temples of Sydney, this Yatra is held under the auspices of the Hindu Council of Australia (HCA) and plans to be a regular annual event. (http://www.hinduismtoday.com/blogs-news/hindu-press-international/australia-pada-yatra-2012-/12397.html accessed on 19 September 2012.)
- 4. Uprooted Or Transplanted: Seminars for Indian Diaspora: We are planning for seminars for the Indian Diaspora in several cities in North America, Europe, and Australia. In October and November 2012 seminars would be held in Washington, Chicago, New Jersey, Denver, Columbus, Pittsburg and Toronto. We would like to start e-magazine for Indian Diaspora also. In 2012 at least four seminars are planned. Please write to us if you wish to be partner, sponsor or volunteer.
Five friends are all you need in life: One just needs five trusted people. To deal with the stress of our fast paced life we want an agony aunt, an emotional support, someone good with money, a practically minded person and a colleague we can ask for work advice. The research (the study of 1,047 UK adults) demonstrates that a minimum of five friends and colleagues are now required to share out our problems and get useful advice from. An agony aunt figure with whom we can share our problems, tops the list. Secondly, we need some loved one who would put an arm around us and provide the quintessential emotional support. The third most important friend is someone who can help us out with financial matters and advise us how to save money. And fourth is a knowledgeable friend or family member we can turn to for advice on life’s practical matters. The fifth most important person one should have is a colleague we can look to for help and advice in the workplace, according to the study by Nationwide Building Society. However, the research revealed that despite the average Facebook user having 190 friends, 32 percent of Britain population still doesn’t feel they really have anyone on their side. Men are twice as likely to feel they have no one to turn to (42 per cent) in their daily lives as compared to women (23 per cent). Those over the age of 55 felt they had fewer trusted friends (40 per cent) than any other age group. The research highlighted the needs for someone to listen to our problems (23 percent), to provide emotional support (18 per cent) and to ease the pressures of everyday life (18 per cent). The research shows support at work is more important to men, with 11 percent looking for advice in this area compared to just five percent of women. In contrast, 15 percent of women say they need someone they can turn to help them manage family relationships. (http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/life-style/relationships/man-woman/Five-friends-are-all-you-need-in-life/articleshow/15107319.cms accessed on 16 September 2012.)
- Pray that Christians become true friends and models in society
- Pray for true friendliness among all communities.
From the Editor:
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